This volume includes some research papers written originally in English and presented at international conferences and seminars about the history and historiography of higher education and European universities. Each of them is aimed to illustrate certain aspects and features of the Italian university system in the last two centuries. The first chapter, in fact, traces the origins and evolution of the university organization from the unification to the II post-war period while the second highlights the recent and particularly complex and controversial history characterizing the introduction of e-learning and distance education in the Italian university system. The third and fourth chapter present, respectively, an overview of the most recent studies carried out in Italy on higher education and universities in the contemporary age and an analysis of the historical archives and of the sources used in the history of higher education and Italian universities of the last two centuries. Based on a very wide archival and printed material, the volume provides an important and original contribution for the history of higher education and of Italian universities between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.